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National Electrical Code Top Ten Tips: Article 440 -- Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Equipment

by Mark Lamendola

Based on the 2011 NEC

Please note, we do quote from copyrighted material. While the NFPA does allow such quotes, it does so only for the purposes of education regarding the National Electrical Code. This article is not a substitute for the NEC.

These are the 10 NEC Article 440 items we deem most important, based on the pervasiveness of confusion and the potential costs of same.

  1. Article 430 also applies. You cannot apply Article 440 without also applying Article 430 [440.3].
     
  2. This Article applies to air conditioning and refrigeration equipment that has a hermetic motor. For all other air conditioning and refrigeration equipment, refer to Article 442 or 424 as appropriate [440.3].
     
  3. Determine the ampacity and rating of equipment per 440.6(A) and 440.6(B).
     
  4. When performing calculations for multi-motor installations (meaning you will comply with 430.24, 420.53, and 430.62), you have to consider one motor to be the on with the highest rated load current. That motor is going to be whichever motor is the largest. If your two largest motors are the same size, pick either one. [440.7]
     
  5. Air conditioning and refrigeration system motors are considered a single machine, even if the motors are remotely located from each other. [440.8]
     
  6. When sizing the disconnects for air conditioning or refrigeration system equipment, different methods apply, depending on the type of load. The load type may be a single hermetic motor only, combination loads, or a small motor load. [440.12(A), 440.12(B), and 440.12(C).]
     
  7. The rules for disconnects in 440.11 apply to every disconnecting means that is in the motor-compressor circuit between the point of attachment of the feeder and the point of connection at the motor. [440.12(D)]
     
  8. Size your short-circuit and ground-fault protective devices such that they are capable of carrying the motor starting current [440.22(A) and 440.22(B)], but don't use a protective device that exceeds the manufacturer's values [440.22(C)].
     
  9. When sizing the branch circuit conductors for air conditioning or refrigeration system equipment, different methods apply, depending on the type of load. The load type may be a single hermetic motor only [440.32] or combination loads [440.34 and 440.35].
     
  10. You must provide separate overload protection for the motor [440.52(A)] and overcurrent protection for the conductors [440.52(B)].

 

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How the NEC is arranged

  1. The first four Chapters of the NEC apply to all installations.
  2. Article 90 precedes Chapter One, and establishes the authority of the NEC.
  3. Article 80 follows the body of the NEC; it exists as Annex H. It provides the requirements for administration.
  4. Chapters 5, 6, and 7 are the "special" chapters, covering special: occupancies, equipment, and conditions (in that order).
  5. Chapter 8 provides the requirements for communications systems.
  6. Chapter 9 provides tables.
  7. The appendices provide mostly reference information.
  8. Appendix D contains examples that every NEC user should study.

Try your NEC moxy:

  • Do you know the difference between bonding and grounding? Hint: Look in the NEC, Article 100.
  • Does the NEC refer to grounding incorrectly in any of its articles? Yes! So be careful to apply the Article 100 definitions. Don't ground where you should bond.
  • When doing motor load calculations, which Article covers hermetic motors? Answer: While Article 440 covers the application of hermetic motors, it does so only by amending Article 430 because hermetic motors are a special case of motors. For motor load calculations, refer to Article 430.
  • Does the NEC provide a voltage drop requirement? Yes! It does so in a special case, which is Article 648 Sensitive Electronic Equipment. But for general applications, it does not provide a requirement; it merely provides a recommendation in a couple of FPNs.
  • Take our Code Quizzes.

Remember other applicable codes, rules, standards, and references:

  • OSHA's electrical worker safety rules.
  • IEEE standards.
  • NETA standards.
  • NFPA standards.
  • International Codes (if applicable to the installation).
  • State Codes (if the state has them).
  • Local ordinances and permit requirements.
  • Local fire codes.
  • Manufacturer requirements or guidelines.
  • Customer security requirements.
  • Industry standards.
  • Your company's own internal standards, practices, and procedures.
  • Engineering drawing notes.

 

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