[250.136]. Grounded (bonded).
[250.138]. By means of an equipment bonding
conductor or a separate flexible wire or strap.
[250.140]. Yes, if certain conditions prevail.
See the full requirements for range bonding in 250.140.
[250.142]. Generally, no. Ranges are one
exception. For the others, read 250.142.
[250.148]. Configure things such that removing
the receptacle (or other device) from the box does not interfere
with or interrupt the grounding continuity. The standard answer to
this is to pigtail.